Articles

April 15, 2022

RooGold secures land access to Gold Belt and Gold Star, its top 2-ranked properties in New South Wales

2022.04.15 Coming off a series of property transactions last year and name change […]
April 15, 2022

Core Assets identifies new copper outcrop at Laverdiere Cu-Fe skarn-porphyry target

2022.04.15 BC-focused explorer Core Assets (CSE:CC, OTC.QB: CCOOF, Frankfurt: 5RJ),currently advancing the province’s most […]
April 14, 2022

Some say China isn’t driving the next commodity super-cycle. We beg to differ

2022.04.14  The new “commodities super-cycle” touted by many including Goldman Sachs, may be […]
April 13, 2022

Palladium: 5 reasons stronger for longer

2022.04.13 One of the clearcut winners of the 2022 commodity rally has to […]
April 12, 2022

Top 5 reasons to consider gold in inflationary period

2022.04.12 Gold has always been the prized metal of mankind for its artistic […]
April 12, 2022

Norden Crown-Boliden JV posts high-grade copper results at Burfjord IOCG project, Norway

2022.04.12 Norden Crown Metals (TSXV:NOCR, OTC:BORMF, Frankfurt:03E) is focused on discovering silver, zinc, […]
April 11, 2022

Max Resource, eyeballs, prospectivity and entval

2022.04.11 At AOTH we believe Max Resource Corp’s (TSXV:MAX; OTC:MXROF; Frankfurt:M1D2) CESAR property has […]
April 9, 2022

Top 5 reasons why battery metals will continue to boom

2022.04.09 The metals used to power our electric vehicles — lithium, graphite, nickel, […]
April 9, 2022

Metal prices remain elevated on global shortages

2022.04.09 Bloomberg reported on Thursday that inventories across London Metal Exchange warehouses have […]
April 8, 2022

Top 5 Uses of Copper

2022.04.08 As the oldest metal known to man, copper has been an essential […]
April 7, 2022

Poster child of government-industry cooperation, Graphite One builds circular economy

2022.04.07 Moving further towards its goal of becoming America’s first fully integrated graphite […]
April 6, 2022

Getchell Gold poised to drill North Fork High-Grade Zone

2022.04.06 The subject of multiple exploration campaigns, with nearly 50,000m of drilling completed, Getchell […]
April 4, 2022

A new “Paris Agreement” sets the plastic age on countdown

2022.04.04 March 1, 2022 could well be looked back upon as a monumental […]
April 4, 2022

一项新的《巴黎协定》将塑料时代设定为倒计时

2022.04.04 2022年3月1日很可能被视为人类历史上的具有纪念意义的一天;那是几乎整个世界就全球首个解决塑料污染问题达成一致的日期。 在肯尼亚内罗毕举行的联合国环境大会(UNEA)会议上,多达175个国家通过了一项关于世界上第一个结束“塑料危机”的条约的决议。自20世纪50年代的塑料时代以来,全球的塑料危机每年都在加剧。 许多人认为这是自2015年巴黎气候协议以来最重要的环境协议。一些人甚至称之为21世纪世界上最具有雄心的环境行动,将其与1989年淘汰消耗臭氧层物质的蒙特利尔议定书相提并论。 “塑料污染已经发展成为一种流行病。通过今天的决议,我们正式走上了治愈的轨道,”联合国环境署主席埃斯彭·巴特·艾德(Espen Barth Eide)在决议通过时表示。 这项具有法律约束力的条约涵盖了塑料从生产到消费和处置的所有阶段。联合国环境规划署(UN Environment Program)执行主任英格·安德森(Inger Anderson)表示,决议文本“说明了整个生命周期;说明了融资机制;说明了一些国家比其他国家更容易做到这一点。” 经过115年的存在和半个多世纪的大规模生产,我们终于对一个充满这种合成材料的世界说“够了”。 我们的塑料世界 […]
April 2, 2022

Governments ignore mining in electrification push

2022.04.02 The supply chain for batteries, wind turbines, solar panels, electric motors, transmission […]
April 2, 2022

EV affordability confronted by rising component costs

2022.04.02 High fuel prices may have a lot of motorists thinking about how […]
March 31, 2022

Quebec becoming a battery metals hub with support from industry and government

2022.03.31 Meeting new emissions targets being set by countries like Canada, the US, […]
March 30, 2022

Under the Spotlight – Mills, Aelicks: Getchell Gold Corp

2022.03.30 Rick Mills: Joining me today is Brad Aelicks. Brad is a geologist, […]
March 29, 2022

Max Resource seals cooperation agreement with Endeavour Silver

2022.03.29 As a follow-up to its major announcement earlier in the month, Max […]
March 26, 2022

Under the Spotlight – Mills, Beale: Pampa Metals

2022.03.26 Rick Mills, Editor/ Publisher, Ahead of the Herd: Today I’m here with […]
March 25, 2022

More guns than butter: US military spending to exceed annual deficits

2022.03.25 “Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, […]
March 24, 2022

Gold, not cash or bitcoin, is Putin’s haven

2022.03.24 Gold is often criticized by Wall Street as kind of a useless […]
March 23, 2022

Guns, butter and gold

2022.23.23 Gold is among the safest of havens in times of war, or […]
March 22, 2022

Backpack drilling confirms grade consistency and continuity of mineralization at Core Assets’ Blue property

2022.03.22 Emerging BC-focused explorer Core Assets Corp. (CSE: CC) (FSE: 5RJ) (OTCQB: CCOOF), […]
March 21, 2022

Red-hot nickel, copper and palladium bodes well for Palladium One

2022.03.21 The current commodity price surge puts Palladium One Mining (TSXV:PDM, OTC:NKORF, FSE:7N11) […]
March 19, 2022

Inequality, inflation and gold

2022.03.19 Food inflation has historically been the catalyst for many popular uprisings, from […]
March 18, 2022

Under The Spotlight – Mills, Wilson: Roogold Inc.

2022.03.18 Rick Mills: This morning we’re talking to Dr. Chris Wilson of Roogold […]
March 17, 2022

Graphite One chooses Washington as location for anode material manufacturing facility, the second link in its supply chain strategy

2022.03.17 In another major step towards becoming America’s first vertically integrated graphite producer, […]
March 17, 2022

Graphite One 选择华盛顿作为阳极材料制造厂,其供应链战略的第二个环节

2022.03.17 Graphite One Inc. (TSXV: GPH) (OTCQX: GPHOF) 本周宣布了其先进材料加工厂的选址,朝着成为美国第一家垂直整合石墨生产商的目标迈出了重要的一步。 该设施最终将建于华盛顿州,负责把电池阳极材料的生产带到美国。公司目前在与公共当局进行讨论,以确定工厂的确切位置。整个设施预计将支持州内大约130个高薪工作。 拟议中的华盛顿设施是 Graphite One […]
March 16, 2022

Climate change and the coming global reset

2022.03.16 It is 2050. Beyond the emissions reductions registered in 2015, no further […]
March 15, 2022

Under the Spotlight – Mills, Brewster: Renforth Resources

2022.03.15 Rick Mills: I’m talking to Nicole Brewster, CEO of Renforth Resources (CSE:RFR, […]
March 14, 2022

Everything’s Broken

2022.03.14 The Arab Spring refers to a series of anti-government protests, uprisings and armed rebellions […]
March 12, 2022

USGS confirms Graphite Creek’s status as America’s largest graphite source

2022.03.12 For years, North America’s supply of critical minerals — the very foundational […]
March 12, 2022

美国地质勘探局证实Graphite Creek为美国最大的石墨来源地

2022.03.12 多年来,北美关键矿产的供应,即清洁能源转型的基础部分,一直是决策者和企业关注的焦点。 一方面,未来几年对用于制造电动汽车和储能应用的原材料的需求将激增。 彭博社新能源金融公司(Bloomberg New Energy Finance)估计,到2030年,锂和镍等矿物的消费量将至少是当前水平的五倍(参见下图)。 这种预测对这些材料的供应提出了巨大的疑问。标准普尔全球(S&P Global)12月的一份报告预计,由于使用量超过了产量,消耗了库存,锂材料将在2022年出现短缺。 虽然锂等金属的供应正在增长,但即使是两位数的增长率(如去年所见),也可能不足以满足我们的汽车电气化需求。 在北美,情况更为严峻,因为美国和加拿大的大部分电动汽车原材料都依赖进口。两国多年来一直忽视着针对电池矿产的勘探与矿山的建造。而考虑到世界政治的动荡程度,这是一种冒险的赌注。 在最终意识到美国供应链的脆弱性后,美国政府于2018年制定了一份清单,列出了35种被认为对其国家和经济安全至关重要的矿物。而如今,这一名单已增至近50种矿物,其中70%仍由其两个主要竞争对手 (俄罗斯和中国)供应。 […]
March 11, 2022

Copper and nickel market updates

2022.03.11 Copper The global copper supply crisis is getting deeper with each passing […]
March 10, 2022

Victory Resources’ drilling at Smokey points to potential lithium-bearing system

2022.03.10 Lithium is without question one of the most sought-after commodities right now, […]
March 9, 2022

Nickel goes parabolic on historic LME short squeeze

2022.03.09 The war in Ukraine has lit a fire under commodities and none […]
March 7, 2022

UNDER THE SPOTLIGHT; MILLS, AELICKS and MAX RESOURCE

2022.03.07 Rick Mills: Joining me today is Brad Aelicks. Brad is a geologist, […]
March 5, 2022

Mills, Moriarty: 4 junior stock picks

2022.03.05 Rick Mills: Joining me today is Bob Moriarty from 321gold. We’re going […]
March 4, 2022

New copper discoveries becoming pressing matter with production from top producer drying up

2022.03.04 The global copper supply crisis is getting deeper with each passing day. […]
March 3, 2022

Graphite One: the key link in America’s future battery minerals supply chain

2022.03.03 The global race to secure more EV battery materials is well and […]
March 3, 2022

Could an emboldened China reveal the West’s dependence on the minerals it controls?

2022.03.03 In a previous article we discussed how a number of electrification metals […]
March 2, 2022

Critical minerals in the crosshairs

2022.03.02 North America relies heavily on foreign supplies of critical minerals — the […]
March 1, 2022

Endeavour Silver to acquire 5% of Max Resource, in all-share deal aimed at expanding Max’s CESAR copper-silver project

2022.03.01 Max Resource Corp (TSXV:MXR; OTC:MXROF; Frankfurt:M1D2) came out with major news on […]
February 26, 2022

Tackling the global plastic crisis

2022.02.26 There’s no denying that plastics and plastic packaging have become an integral […]
February 25, 2022

The limits to growth: Why the West will struggle to find enough metals to supply simultaneous demand drivers

2022.02.25 In 2021, commodities outperformed all other asset classes, and they are expected […]
February 23, 2022

Electrification metals nickel, cobalt, palladium in play following Russian moves in Eastern Ukraine

2022.02.23 Weeks of failed diplomacy over a potential invasion of Ukraine resulted in […]
February 23, 2022
stacked -gold-bars

As investors flock to safe havens, gold equities may come out as the biggest winners

20.02.23 The recent geopolitical tensions in Ukraine tell us that during troubled times, […]
February 23, 2022

随着投资者涌向避风港,黄金股可能成为最大赢家

20.02.23 乌克兰近期的地缘政治紧张局势告诉我们,在困难时期,投资者仍将青睐黄金作为避风港。 在经历了相当平淡的2021年之后,黄金在今年有了一个诱人的开端。年初至今,贵金属已飙升超过4%,其中大部分涨幅来自过去三周,这与可能是几十年来欧洲最大的军事危机相吻合。 黄金价格目前处于八个月来的最高点,接近2021年6月初最后一次看到的每盎司1900美元的关键点。但分析人士认为,只要乌克兰局势仍未解决,就有一条上升的跑道。 周一,俄罗斯发布了一份声明,驳斥了有关弗拉基米尔·普京总统和美国总统乔·拜登可能举行峰会以解决乌克兰问题僵局的报道。 这进一步推动了黄金购买,同时进一步抑制了投资者的风险偏好。 而大量的资金也涌入了黄金上市交易基金市场。顶级交易基金 SPDR gold Trust 上周宣布增持0.5%,接近一年来的最高水平。 瑞银集团(UBS Group […]
February 21, 2022

Lithium is skyrocketing amid the global EV boom, will graphite follow suit?

2022.02.21 While it’s too early to declare lithium as the winning commodity of […]
February 19, 2022

Norden Crown embarking upon $1.9M exploration program at Burfjord copper-gold project in Norway

2022.02.19 Norden Crown Metals (TSXV:NOCR, OTC:BORMF, Frankfurt:03E) is focused on discovering silver, zinc, […]
February 19, 2022
Sprout-less Gold now Tier 1 Capital

Gold Thrives in Rate-Hike Cycles

2022.02.19 Adam Hamilton, CPA Gold-futures speculators’ most-feared hobgoblin is Fed-rate-hike cycles.  These super-leveraged […]
February 18, 2022

Why inflation is ‘baked in the cake’ and gold is moving up

2022.02.18 Driven by the need to decarbonize due to increasingly apparent climate change, […]
February 17, 2022

Getchell returns ‘stunning result’ at North Fork Zone, as gold nears 3-month high

2022.02.17 Geopolitical tensions on the Russia-Ukraine border pushed gold to its highest in […]
February 16, 2022

As copper supply approaches “extreme scarcity”, GSP looks to reboot former producing mine with bulk-tonnage potential

2022.02.16 “I’ve been doing this 30 years and I’ve never seen markets like […]
February 16, 2022

Transformative year for Max Resources

2022.02.16 In exploration, a number of techniques are employed to gather information about […]
February 15, 2022

Nickel Market Update

2022.02.15 The nickel market is currently experiencing its biggest squeeze in recent memory. […]
February 15, 2022

Copper market update

2022.02.15 The copper industry is threatened by a looming global supply crisis, as […]
February 15, 2022

Core Assets: Maiden sampling program at Blue project returns high-grade carbonate replacement mineralization

2022.02.15 In the northwest corner of British Columbia, Core Assets’ (CSE:CC, OTC.QB:CCOOF, Frankfurt: […]
February 14, 2022

Copper, lithium, graphite: Electrification demand strengthens as supplies tighten

2022.02.14 The move away from fossil-fuel-powered vehicles to EVs run on batteries is […]
February 14, 2022

Rush to Renewables and EVs Makes China the World’s New Energy Master

2022.02.14 February 2, 2022 – Battery metals like lithium, nickel and others have […]
February 13, 2022
How gold M&A will benefit quality juniors

Gold Stocks Still Coiling

2022.02.11Adam Hamilton, CPA While the gold miners’ stocks remain out of favor, they […]
February 12, 2022

World’s running short on nickel supply for battery use

2022.02.12 The nickel market is currently experiencing its biggest squeeze in recent memory. […]
February 12, 2022

世界电池用镍供应短缺

2022.02.12 镍市场目前正在经历最近记忆中最大的挤压。 对抗气候变化的积极承诺催生了对清洁能源转型至关重要的金属的购买热潮。作为电动汽车电池的关键成分,镍毫无疑问成为了所有购物清单的首选。 鉴于电动汽车行业的持续需求,全世界的金属库存一直在减少,似乎有些人甚至愿意“不惜一切代价”抢购电池矿物。 本周,镍的三个月现金利差创下新纪录。与三个月内的合约相比,即时交割合约的溢价为570美元/吨,这是自2007年历史性紧缩以来的最高溢价。 类似的情况发生在 1 月份,但针对的是近期合约。1月18日,伦敦金属交易所(LME)的现金合约较一天后到期的合约溢价90美元/吨,为2010年以来的最高水平,也接近2007年的水平。这促使了交易所加强监管措施(这是12个月来的第三次)。 然而,最新的镍挤压带来了更大的影响,鉴于电池制造商的强劲需求,市场现在正在考虑在更长时间内供应更紧张的镍。 例如,在过去一周,2月和3月合同的价差增加了一倍多;3月和4月合约之间的价差也是如此。 自2021年4月以来,LME库存已减少了近三分之二,从约261000吨降至2022年1月的约88100吨。 所有这些都表明,世界上用于清洁能源应用的镍可能很快就会耗尽,尤其是在需求高速增长的情况下。 瑞银(UBS)的一份报告显示镍的短缺最早将在今年开始,并预测到本世纪末,该电池金属将出现220万吨的巨额短缺。 […]
February 12, 2022

Commodities are the place to be. Here’s why

2022.02.12 Commodities are considered one of the best places to park investment capital […]
February 11, 2022

Under The Spotlight Dolly Varden Silver

2022.02.11 AOTH’s Rick Mills: Shawn on the 10th of December 2021 Dolly Varden […]
February 10, 2022

Pampa Metals lands deal with AI tech company to explore more copper-gold prospects in Chile

2022.02.10 For a technology to have a transformative effect on the mining industry, […]
February 8, 2022

1979 vs 2022: Why interest rate hikes are different

2022.02.08 Someone born in 1979 is 43 years old this year. No doubt […]
February 7, 2022

As US national debt hits $30 trillion, higher borrowing costs & negative real yields will make it harder to finance

2022.02.07 The United States reached a new milestone this week, but it’s nothing […]
February 5, 2022

走向“绿色”的悖论

2022.02.05 我们已经认识到,清洁能源的过渡是应对全球气候变化的前进方向。但这样的“绿色转型”承载着巨大的成本。 彭博新能源财经(BNEF)估计,到2050年,政府和企业将需要至少投资92万亿美元,以便以足够快的速度减少排放,以防止气候变化的噩梦。 大幅减少排放的所有希望基于我们扩大电力作用的能力。 总体而言,BNEF预计到2050年,全球发电量至少需要翻一番,达到近6.22万太瓦时,占最终能源消耗的近50%,而目前仅为19%。 BNEF还称,本十年排放量可能下降的四分之三以上可能来自电力供应以及风能和太阳能等可再生能源的日益使用。 这一时期排放量下降的另外14%可以通过汽车、家庭和工业从燃烧化石燃料转向电力来实现。 BNEF模型显示,这一转变需要在基础设施上投入更多资金,以适应清洁能源。到2050年,每年平均投入将达到3.1万亿美元和5.8万亿美元之间。这意味着最终的“清洁能源”法案可能高达173万亿美元,约为2019年美国国内生产总值的八倍。 欧洲央行最近声称,全球变暖的潜在影响将远远超过我们在清洁能源上的支出。欧洲央行最糟糕的情况(即不采取行动)可能会使欧洲GDP下降10%。然而,这真的很多吗? 撇开支出规模不谈,更仔细地审视我们走向更绿化未来的道路,以及所涉及的一切可能会模糊什么是清洁能源和什么不是清洁能源之间的界限。 什么是清洁能源?我们如何获得它? 现代经济的电气化和脱碳化都面临着其所需的原材料 — […]
February 5, 2022

The paradox of going green

2022.02.05 We have come to terms that a global transition to clean energy […]
February 3, 2022

Dolly Varden hits up to 1,220 g/t silver at Torbrit, largest of four deposits at its namesake project in the Golden Triangle

2022.02.03 Predominantly a silver explorer, Dolly Varden Silver’s (TSXV:DV, OTC:DOLLF) flagship project is […]
February 2, 2022

Max Resource granted additional mining concession contracts in Colombia, the most of any in the country

2022.02.02 Having made significant progress over the past year at its flagship CESAR […]
February 1, 2022

Gold market update

2022.02.01 Gold market The US Federal Reserve, whose job is to keep unemployment […]
January 31, 2022

Norden Crown searching for high-grade VMS deposits in Sweden’s historic mining district

2022.01.31 In mining, the term “mineralization” is typically referred to as the deposition […]
January 29, 2022

Core Assets’ Blue project: A potentially massive CRD deposit in northwestern BC

2022.01.29 Carbonate replacement deposits (CRD) are some of the most interesting assemblages of […]
January 28, 2022

Graphite vs lithium

2022.01.28 The electrification of the global transportation system doesn’t happen without lithium and […]
January 27, 2022

Magna Gold cranks up production in Mexico as gold & silver prices find traction in inflation and geopolitical tensions

2022.01.27 Inflation is one of the best determinants of gold price movements, because […]
January 27, 2022

Getchell’s two latest drill holes encounter three gold zones at Fondaway Canyon, including 2.6 g/t Au over 18.5m at surface

2022.01.27 About 170 km northeast of Reno, Nevada, Getchell is in the midst of […]
January 26, 2022

Love Pharma gets set to capitalize on new era of health and wellness

2022.01.26 For most of us, the Covid-19 pandemic represents the biggest global health […]
January 25, 2022

Renforth channel sampling returns up to 2% copper at Surimeau polymetallic asset in Quebec

2022.01.25 Renforth Resources’ (CSE:RFR, OTCQB:RFHRF, FSE:9RR) Surimeau project in Quebec hosts several target […]
January 24, 2022

Palladium, and Palladium One, at the forefront of new hydrogen economy

2022.01.24 As the world transitions from fossil-fueled “ICEs” to battery-powered electric vehicles, the […]
January 22, 2022

GSP continues to explore past-producing Alwin Mine, as copper price support remains solid

2022.01.22 Copper has been one of the biggest winners of the commodities complex […]
January 22, 2022

Dolly Varden has 21 drill holes left to report, as gold, silver and copper prices bounce

2022.01.22 Predominantly a silver explorer, Dolly Varden Silver’s (TSXV:DV, OTC:DOLLF) flagship project is […]
January 21, 2022

Wage slaves vs gold owners, revisited

2022.01.21 Inflation is the rate at which prices within a basket of goods […]
January 21, 2022

Global supply crunch for battery metals

2022.01.21 Electrification and decarbonization are anticipated to be one of the biggest investment […]
January 20, 2022

Our plastic world

2022.01.20 Think about this: Every time you buy a soft drink that comes […]
January 20, 2022

A record year looms for lithium, underlining a global supply crunch that could derail the EV boom

2022.01.20 Electrification and decarbonization are anticipated to be one of the biggest investment […]
January 19, 2022

Evanesce tackling single-use plastic problem with 100% compostable straws and Styrofoam alternatives

2022.01.19 Think about this: Every time you buy a soft drink that comes […]
January 18, 2022

Junior resource companies on a global hunt for new copper supply

2022.01.18 Copper is coming off a historic year during which its prices broke […]
January 17, 2022

Copper boom likely to last for decades, prompting a global hunt for new supply

2022.01.17 Copper is coming off a historic year during which its prices broke […]
January 15, 2022

When the Fed is between a rock and a hard place, got gold?

2022.01.05 Inflation is one of the best determinants of gold price movements, because […]
January 15, 2022

铜的繁荣可能持续几十年,促使全球寻找新的供应

2022.01.15 在这历史性的一年中,铜价不仅一次,而且两次打破纪录,在10月中旬达到4.76美元/磅(或10476美元/吨)的峰值。 2021上半年,铜在最大消费国中国的带动下,在全球经济活动急剧复苏的背景下反弹。同时推高价格的还有一种信念,即与疫情相关的刺激措施,加上全球对脱碳的推动,将进一步提振对工业金属的需求。 这导致铜价在4月底突破10000美元/吨的水平,这是十年来的第一次,并最终在一周后飙升至新高。 然后在下半年,由于能源危机影响了几家主要生产商并威胁到全球供应,铜价再次获得提振。 10 月,来自欧洲仓库的金属订单激增,导致伦敦金属交易所 (LME) 库存暴跌89%,降至47年来的最低水平。 所有这些事件构成了铜业破纪录的一年,尽管许多人认为该金属的牛市才刚刚开始。2022年及以后是否还会出现铜价反弹?我们将在下面详细探讨。 2022年的铜 分析师们倾向于认为,市场波动可能会在2022年的大部分时间内持续,而且有几种相互冲突的力量在起作用,这将限制铜等大宗商品的价格。 包括高盛(Goldman […]
January 14, 2022
gold nugget

Gold Lagging Inflation

2022.01.14 Adam Hamilton, CPA Gold is lagging the raging inflation unleashed by the […]
January 14, 2022

Getchell Gold continues to hit high-grade at Fondaway Canyon

2022.01.14 Inflation is one of the best determinants of gold price movements, because […]
January 12, 2022

Palladium One is a ‘complete’ energy metal explorer; updated resource estimate expected in Q1

2022.01.12 By giving investors exposure to palladium and nickel, primarily, but also copper, […]
January 11, 2022

Foreign Treasury buyers take pause: a story told in charts

2022.01.11 China and Japan are by far the largest buyers of US Treasuries. […]
January 8, 2022

Cypress Development: a potential low-cost lithium producer in Nevada to look out for in 2022

2021.01.08 In 2022, renewable energy and electrification of the global transport system stand […]
January 7, 2022

Big Gold Breakout Nearing

2022.01.07 Adam Hamilton, CPA Gold is nearing a major technical breakout from a […]
January 7, 2022

Rushing headlong into electrification, the West is replacing one energy master with another

2022.01.07 The United States and its allies, such as Canada, the UK, the […]