Richard (Rick) Mills
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Electric vehicles (EVs) have far fewer moving parts than Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) gasoline-powered cars - they don't have mufflers, gas tanks, catalytic converters or ignition systems, there’s also never an oil change or tune-up to worry about getting done.
Electric drives are more efficient then the drives on ICE powered cars. They are able to convert more of the available energy to propel the car therefore using less energy to go the same distance. EVs convert about 59%–62% of electrical energy, ICE vehicles convert about 17%–21% of the energy stored in gasoline to power at the wheels. And applying the brakes in an EV converts what was wasted energy in the form of heat to useful energy in the form of electricity to help recharge the car’s batteries.
But the real story behind all electric vehicles is that they are totally emission free.
If all that sounds too good to be true that’s because it is. EVs face significant battery-related challenges:
- Driving range is typically limited to 60 to 120 miles on a full charge although a few models can go 200 to 300 miles.
- Fully recharging the battery pack can take 4 to 8 hours. Even a "fast charge" to 80% capacity can take 30 min.
- Besides being heavy and taking up a lot of space battery packs are expensive and may need to be replaced one or more times.
The missing link
Unlike other forms of energy, electricity cannot be easily stored in large quantities. The one thing holding EV’s, solar and other renewable energy sources from complete widespread adoption is a lack of energy storage.
The ability to store large amounts of electricity over longer periods of time can be beneficial in the following ways:
- With new more cost-effective energy storage technologies electricity could be captured and dispatched to the grid whenever required
- Brings added stability to the electricity system by smoothing out fluctuations in solar and wind resources output
- Temporarily absorbs surges and excess power flow eases points of congestion in transmission and distribution networks
- Absorbs surplus base load generation when the output is higher than minimum demands
I wrote the following early in 2009;
“Lithium battery technology is absolutely critical to President Obama’s energy plan. Lithium-ion is the leading battery technology and a hugely important first step towards transforming electric cars from a niche curiosity into a major clean energy revolution for the transportation sector.
Lithium batteries could be part of the answer to increasingly expensive oil, energy dependence on foreign suppliers and global warming. Now, with the big push to renewable energy and far less reliance on fossil fuels, a market is starting to develop in the United States for more advanced batteries.”
The US government has classified manganese as a strategic metal. This is not hard to understand when manganese has no substitute metals in its many steel applications and has itself (EMM) become a substitute for other more expensive metals in certain alloys.
Electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) is a refined manganese product produced through electrolysis of a manganese rich solution. Today there are no domestic suppliers of electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) in North America and China controls 97% of the world trade in EMM.
Various refined forms of manganese such as EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) can be made from the same circuits and process as electrolytic manganese metal. EMD is a key ingredient in the production of batteries, including conventional alkaline cells and lithium-ion batteries. The USA is the largest consumer of EMD worldwide.
Battery consumption of Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide (EMD) has been predicted to be the fastest growing segment of manganese production with a CAGR of 5.1% from 2015 to 2022. EMD demand will rise in lockstep with the rise in the use rechargeable batteries used to power consumer electronics, electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the energy storage systems that store electricity harvested from clean energy produced by solar, wind and tidal systems.
Grand View Research
Another application for EMD is in electrodes for water treatment plants as it separates out the waste from the water. A growing water treatment industry, particularly in Asia Pacific, is anticipated to drive demand over the foreseeable future.
Both Canada and the United States have numerous and vast iron ore deposits, yet neither country produces manganese.
Fact - Manganese is a strategic mineral essential for the economy and defense of the United States.
Fact - Manganese cannot be sourced in adequate quantities from reliable and secure domestic suppliers.
Fact - There is no substitute for manganese, as a matter of fact manganese has itself become a substitute in certain alloy applications.
Manganese X Energy Corp.
Energy storage is the last vital piece, the still missing third link needed to wean the global economy off fossil fuels and enable widespread adoption of renewable clean energy.
Manganeseis NOT mined in North America despite being considered a strategic/critical metal by the U.S. (for over a 100 years) and despite being seen as the potential star of new energy storage technology. There is no North American security of supply for this energy critical metal.
Manganese X Energy Corp. (TSXV: MN) (FSE: 9SC2) (OTC: SNCGF) has recognized this and is seeking to create a secure North American source of concentrated manganese ore while striving to achieve green/zero emissions processing.
The company has signed an agreement with Kingston Process Metallurgy Inc. to investigate all options of enhancing manganese for the purposes of Lithium-ion battery use to maximize the added value potential of the Company's Battery Hill manganese property. Manganese X has also assembled a very strong Technical and Marketing Advisory Board focused on the energy storage market.